Eye color is determined by the amount of melanin, a dark brown pigment, found in the eye called the “iris”. The blue eyes are caused least the amount of melanin and brown eyes showed a high number of melanin.
People with darker hair color and a skin have more melanin, so they have brown eyes, while those with the paler hair color and skin has a much smaller amount of melanin that usually have a brighter eye color.
Eye color is influenced by genes. The most easy concept to explain how inherited hereditary iris color is the concept of heredity 2 allele. Image above is a simple concept of heredity 2 allele.
Brown is the most common eye color in the world. This is the result of the presence of large amounts of melanin in the iris stroma.
Hazel eye color or brownish red, also includes a common eye color. Hazel eye color is the result of a combination of Rayleigh scattering and a layer of melanin in the front border of the iris. Hazel eye color has also been defined as a color intermediate between green light and dark brown. Hazel eye color is very common among people in the U.S. and Europe, while rare in Africa, the Middle East and Asian people.
Gray eye color can be dark blue color (like blue-green). Gray eye color associated with a low melanin in the iris and is associated with little pigmentation throughout the body (such as pale skin, bright hair, etc.).
Blue eye color is quite common in Europe, especially those born in Germany, Holland, Iceland, Austria, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Estonia. The secret behind blue eye color is the low amount of melanin in the iris stroma. In Central Asia and the Middle East, blue eyes are very rare.
Amber eye color is defined as a golden yellow and brown / copper color. The secret behind the amber eye color is the deposition of ‘lipochrome‘, the yellow pigment in the iris. This is a very rare eye color and also known as ‘wolf eyes‘, because the yellow eye color is very common in wolves.
Green eye color is the rarest eye color, with only 1-2% of the world’s population born with green eyes. The secret green eye color is a moderate amount of melanin production. People born in Northern Europe and Nordic countries (like Iceland, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Germany, and Netherlands) usually have green eyes.
If someone has a different amount of melanin in each iris in their eyes, they will have different color eyes. This is called Heterochromia iridium. Heterochromia iridium is relatively rare for humans. Heterochromia iridium more common in some animals such as horses, cats, and several species of dogs.
Heterochromia iridium allegedly as a result of changes to one of several genes that regulate eye color. Heterochromia iridium is also a hereditary factor, although trauma and some types of medication can also result in increased or decreased pigmentation in one slice. Some types of medical syndromes, such as Waardenburg syndrome, can also cause someone to have two different eye colors.
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